Nineteen persons were killed in a major eruption on June 25, 1997. The airport on the island was entirely destroyed since it was immediately in the path of the major pyroclastic flow. The tourism economy in Montserrat similarly collapsed, however it began to recover substantially within fifteen years.
The volcano is part of the Atlantic Ocean and its border with the Caribbean Sea. It is one of eight volcanic islands that make up the British overseas territory of Montserrat. The other seven islands are Antigua, Barbuda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Anguilla, Bermuda, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands.
The volcano is named after Monserrat, a princess from Spain's Aragon province. In 1555, King Phillip II of Spain married Princess Juana to his second cousin Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. When Charles refused to give up his claim to France, Germany, and Austria, as well as Spain and Portugal, the marriage was considered morganatic - that is, not legitimate - by some countries, so they did not have to cancel their plans to invade Spain. Others saw it as an opportunity for political marriage negotiations - or "marriage trading", as one historian has called it. Either way, the couple had two children who lived longer than either parent: Philip II of Spain and Mariana of Austria.
Chances Peak remained active for five years after it awoke. The most violent eruptions took place in 1997. During this period, pyroclastic flows ravaged Montserrat. Another issue is, when was Montserrat's last volcanic eruption? The new data suggest that the last major eruption was 515 years ago.
Eruptions were followed by periods of relative quiet. But recent studies have shown that there is still hot rock deep within the volcano's crust. If it cools, the rock might be able to erupt again.
Volcanoes are defined by their ability to eject matter into the air. When this matter reaches high enough temperatures, it becomes lava. If the matter does not reach these high temperatures, then it becomes pyroclastic flow or cloud of dust. Volcanoes can also collapse, forming a crater. In this case, they are called calderas.
The only species known to exist exclusively on Montserrat are three species of spider found only in two locations on the island. They represent unique genetic pools preserved since before European colonization.
In 1608, a severe earthquake damaged much of the town of Plymouth. The city fathers decided to move its residents to safer ground. So they built a new town, now called Plymouth Notley Road.
The Montserrat volcanic eruption in 1995 had a significant environmental impact. Villages were devastated, and previously farmed area was covered in rock and ash deposits. A large area of land on the island's south side was covered with rock created by the cooling of magma as well as ash from the eruption. The cost of dealing with the disaster was estimated at the time to be around £150 million.
An important effect of the eruption was that it changed the climate of Montserrat dramatically. The eruption blocked out much of the sun's radiation, causing several years of darkness and cold temperatures. The volcano also emitted huge amounts of carbon dioxide, which caused global warming.
In addition, the eruption destroyed ten homes and damaged another sixty-four, leaving seventy-three people homeless. About a quarter of the population of the island was affected by the disaster.
Finally, the eruption killed about 250 birds and animals, most likely due to contamination from toxic gases. Animals that could not escape were poisoned by the fumes which then filled their bodies with heavy metals.
In conclusion, the Montserrat volcanic eruption had a significant environmental impact by destroying villages, covering farmland in rock, and emitting harmful gases and particles into the atmosphere. This impact will be felt for many years to come because the eruption disrupted the natural cycle of sunlight hitting the planet which causes plants to grow and die.
More than 350 people perished as a result of the eruption, the majority of them were killed by falling roofs. The sickness that spread in the evacuation camps, as well as the ongoing mudslides in the region, resulted in an additional 722 deaths, bringing the overall death toll to 722 persons.
The eruption was very deadly because most of the victims weren't able to escape in time. Also, the volcano created mudflows which killed more people.
After the eruption, it took years for the survivors to recover from the trauma of these events. Many people still suffer consequences today due to injuries they received during the eruption or during the subsequent cleanup efforts.
In addition to the deaths, the eruption caused economic losses estimated at $100 million at the time. Today, this number has increased significantly due to medical costs for those who were affected by the mudslides and remainsdens who lost their homes.
Another consequence of the eruption is that it changed the face of volcanology. Before the eruption, scientists thought that volcanic eruptions were always followed by earthquakes as magma pushed its way up through Earth's crust. But what happened in 1991 was different: There was no earthquake before or after the eruption. This means that something else must have been going on below ground that we didn't know about before. The discovery led to new ideas about how volcanoes form.