Terrorism's indiscriminate growth poses a significant danger to both international and domestic tourism, affecting and altering visitors' perceptions of travel risk and decision-making, as well as raising security and safety concerns (Korstanje and Skoll 2014). Terrorism can have a direct impact on tourism by killing or injuring tourists or damaging property, such as during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami when hundreds of tourists were stranded without food or water in Sri Lanka. Indirect effects include changes to visitation patterns as a result of vigilance or cautionary behavior toward certain destinations or sectors of the tourism industry, and reduced willingness to travel because of fears associated with terrorism.
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, caused what was at the time estimated to be $10 billion in damage to New York City's tourism industry alone. Since then, there have been other large-scale attacks that have had an even greater negative impact on tourism. For example, between 2004 and 2006, Iraq suffered multiple bombings that killed approximately 3,500 people in total. These attacks received widespread media coverage that threatened to destroy Iraq's image as a safe destination for tourism.
Since 2007, the number of terror incidents has decreased but the severity of attacks has increased. There were more than 300 terror incidents around the world in 2008 and 2009, which is almost as many as in all previous years combined.
A large number of empirical research indicate that terrorism has a major detrimental influence on tourism and a country's tourist business. They maintain that there is a considerable negative association between terrorism and tourism, with the higher the danger resulting in fewer tourist arrivals and vice versa. Terrorism affects both international and domestic tourists differently but it usually has a negative impact on the former.
Internationally, terrorist attacks are one of the most important factors contributing to the decline in global tourism after 2001. In that year alone, the attack on 9/11 caused tourism revenues worldwide to drop by $10 billion (9.4%). Since then the threat of further attacks has kept people away from airports and travel websites, with more than 70% of travelers reporting that they will use less air travel or tour operators due to security concerns.
Domestically, aviation security has become one of the main obstacles preventing victims of terrorism from seeking medical help. The public perception that flying is dangerous makes people reluctant to seek medical care for injuries sustained while traveling by plane. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), less than 50% of patients with potential life-threatening injuries from terrorist acts actually go to a hospital.
In terms of tourism, there are dangers linked with social and political components of adventure tourism that people see as a threat when traveling, such as terrorism, economic fluctuations, political change in the nation, and so on. However, some researchers believe that the real danger for tourists is not so much what happens but rather what does not happen - they fail to have an amazing experience because they are too focused on security or avoiding risk. There have been cases where tourists have been injured or even killed while trying to save money by doing things themselves or due to incorrect advice from tour operators.
The main danger for adventure travelers is likely to be serious illness or injury due to unexpected changes in conditions. For example, travelers might encounter animals on their trek that are dangerous to humans (such as snakes or lions), or they might find themselves trapped in a remote area without help nearby. In these situations, it is important that they take appropriate precautions to prevent harm to themselves or others.
The major cause of death for adventurous travelers is most likely going to be something related to disease or accident. These are the two biggest threats to health, with accidents being caused by natural phenomena (such as earthquakes or floods) or human error (such as riding a motorcycle without a helmet).
According to Buigut and Amendah (2015), terrorism has had a substantial impact on tourism arrivals and revenues in Kenya. According to their findings, a 1% increase in mortality reduces tourist visits by around 0.132 percent, implying an annual loss of about Ksh157.5 million (USD 2.16 million) for Kenya's tourism industry.
They note that the effect of terrorism on arrivals is larger than its effect on revenue, because tourists are more likely to avoid risky destinations. The study also finds that high-risk regions such as Nairobi affect both arrivals and revenues negatively. Terrorist attacks that target hotels and other tourist facilities have a particularly large negative impact on arrivals.
The study concludes that there is no evidence of any long-term recovery in tourism following terrorist attacks.
Source: "The effects of terrorism on tourism: Evidence from Kenya," by B. Buigut and H.J. Amendah. Management Decision, 2015.
Following terrorist incidents, consumers typically reconsider their travel plans, which can result in fewer customers booking flights and lower revenue for airlines. > span> In the case of terrorists targeting planes themselves, it can affect how long it takes to plan a trip, how far passengers are willing to go on a budget, and how much money they are willing to spend. For example, following the September 11, 2001, attacks, air traffic controllers went on strike, delaying thousands of flights across the United States. In addition, travelers changed their habits in response to fear of violence on airplanes and avoided flying during the crisis.
Since then, airlines have taken many measures to make them safer. For example, after one attacker killed more than 300 people when he crashed a plane into the World Trade Center in 2001, most major airlines started requiring two people to enter the cockpit before each flight. This is called "two-person rule". It was adopted to prevent an attacker from forcing the pilot to fly the plane during an attack.
In addition, after another attacker killed more than 300 people when he crashed a plane into the Pentagon in 2003, most major airlines began requiring electronic passports for all passengers.