U.S. residents having only U.S. citizenship who are married to Palestinian ID card holders may be needed to seek a permission from Israeli officials in order to travel between the West Bank or Gaza and Israel, however this is not assured. There have been reports of such travelers being denied entry into Israel.
In addition, American citizens are prohibited by law from entering Egypt. However, Egyptian authorities do not always enforce this prohibition and many Americans enter Egypt illegally. Those who do get caught often have to pay a fine and/or complete a sentence of labor on state-owned building projects before being allowed to enter the country.
Americans need to know that it is illegal for foreign nationals to work in the Palestinian Territories. It is also against the law for an Israeli or a Palestinian to prevent an American citizen from entering or leaving the country.
Israel has a double-standard policy regarding women's rights. Women in Israel have won many rights over the years, but they still lack equality with men in terms of access to education, employment, health care, and political power. In fact, women in Israel face considerable discrimination in all areas of life, including in family law. As well, women suffer abuse at the hands of male partners more than men would like to admit. Domestic violence is widely accepted as "normal" in Israel, and because most attacks go unpunished, victims rarely report these crimes.
Residents of Gaza are only permitted to go to the West Bank in extreme humanitarian instances, such as urgent medical emergencies, but not for the purpose of marriage. Travel from the West Bank to Gaza is only possible if the individual agrees to permanently migrate to Gaza. The only way to reach Gaza from the outside world is through Israel, which has a border control called "the Erez checkpoint". This is located within Israeli territory and lies on the boundary with the Palestinian Territory between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem.
An alternative route exists via Egypt, but this requires a permit from the Egyptian government to enter its territory. No such permits have been issued since the ousting of President Mohamed Morsi by the military in 2013.
The only land route out of Gaza currently open for business is through Israel. The only other feasible option would be by sea, but there are no boats capable of navigating the waters around the blockaded territory.
People often ask about traveling from Gaza to Egypt, but the only way to do this is through Israel. There is no direct road connection between the two countries and any attempt to cross into Egypt from Gaza at Rafah leads to their border being closed off.
In conclusion, yes, people can travel from Gaza to the West Bank. However, there is no regular bus service so any travel by this method is going to be extremely uncomfortable.
Obtaining Israeli citizenship for Palestinians living in Gaza and the West Bank is nearly difficult. It is significantly more difficult for Palestinians with Israeli parents to get citizenship. Marriage to an Israeli does not entitle Palestinians to reside in Israel. Only individuals who fulfill some sort of national service requirement may apply for citizenship.
In 2004, the Knesset passed the Citizenship Law, which provides that anyone who has lived in Israel for at least 10 years out of the last 20 before the law went into effect (which was after it was passed) can apply for citizenship. This would include most Palestinians who have moved to Israel since 1967. The law also provides for certain exceptions including if they were born in Israel or elsewhere but had a parent who was neither a citizen nor eligible for citizenship under any other category. In this case, they would not be granted citizenship either.
Israel originally planned to grant citizenship to all Palestinian refugees who returned to their homes after being displaced in the 1948 War. But only a small number took them up on this offer, and today only about 5,000 Palestinians are citizens. The rest live as undocumented migrants or refugees in the world's largest refugee camp - located near where Israel stands today. Many countries view the status of these people as unresolved, making it difficult for them to obtain working permits and other documents required by employers who want to hire them.
Individuals intending to travel or explore the region in general are not permitted to enter Gaza, but those having ties to international organizations or journalists, for example, may. Before applying for an Israeli or Egyptian travel visa, you must have a genuine cause to enter Gaza. If you intend to go there solely to see what is happening on the other side of the border, we recommend that you wait until after the fighting has stopped.
Within Gaza, your main concern will be security issues. There have been terrorist attacks against Israelis in the past and it's not possible to guarantee your safety unless you are part of the security forces. However, as a general rule, major cities are safe during the day. It's best to stay away from deserted areas and show an official ID at checkpoints if questioned about your purpose for visiting Gaza.
The main risk you face when traveling within Gaza is attack by terrorists. Although no incidents have occurred recently, there have been bombings targeting civilians in shopping malls and restaurants in Israel. These attacks have killed dozens of people over the years. There's also a possibility of being caught in another round of fighting between Israel and Hamas; however, this situation has improved significantly in recent months.